A weak pointer is one that is not sufficient to keep an object live. If some object
x is pointed to by ordinary pointers and by weak pointers, it will stay live (not be garbage collected); but if it is pointed to only by weak pointers, then it may be garbage collected.
As an example, suppose we want to make a "finalization" function for some data structure
t. We can create a
w=weak(t) and put
w onto a list (of things we want to finalize). Then we can watch this list from time to time, and when
strong(w)=NONE we can perform the finalization procedure. A good time to examine the list is upon receipt of the
GC signal; see Signals.
The semantics of weak pointers to immutable data structures in ML is ambiguous. For example, consider the following:
let val (b', w') = let val a = (1, 2) val b = (1, 2) val w = weak(a) in (b,w) end in (b, strong w) endAfter this expression is evaluated,
ais both statically and dynamically dead; so one would think that the result is
((1,2),NONE). But first of all, weak pointers do not go dead until a garbage collection occurs, so the answer will likely be
((1,2),SOME(1,2)). Secondly, the compiler or runtime system may have done common subexpression elimination, so that
bpoint to the same (1,2), and therefore
w's contents may stay alive as long as
Finally, in this example:
let val a = (1,2) val w = weak(a) in (a,w) endeven though
ais still alive, the compiler may have unpacked
ainto registers; in creating
wit may box a new copy of (1,2) onto the heap, but there are no other pointers to this copy, so
w's contents are immediately dead and may be reclaimed by the collector.
One way of avoiding these problems, this year, is to apply
weak only to
ref objects, which have a stronger notion of object identity than do ordinary records, tuples, and data constructors. This works as long as the compiler does not optimize
refs too much, which at present is a safe assumption.
type 'a weak
val weak : 'a -> 'a weak
val strong : 'a weak -> 'a option
val weak' : 'a -> weak'
val strong' : weak' -> bool
type 'a weak
NONEif the object to which w points has already been garbage-collected; or
SOME(a)if w points to some still-live object
'a; weak pointers of this type can be examined to see if the underlying objects are still alive, but the underlying objects cannot be extracted from them. This is useful to make finalizers (of heterogenous collections) statically type-check.
Last Modified October 28, 1997
Comments to firstname.lastname@example.org
Copyright © 1998 Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies