SML/NJ Error and Warning Messages

This document contains lists of error and warning messages produced by the SML/NJ Version 110 compiler, sorted alphabetically, with short explanations and examples.

Parsing Errors

The parser used by SML/NJ is produced by ML-Yacc, and it uses a lexer generated by ML-Lex. The parser uses an error repair scheme that attempts to get a correct parse by deleting, adding, or substituting tokens. The parser produces error messages like:
  let x = 4 in x+3 end

  foo.sml:1.5 Error: syntax error: inserting  VAL
This error message indicates how the parser attempted to "repair" the input (from a file foo.sml), and in this case indicates that the parser thinks that val is needed after the let (at line 1, column 5 of foo.sml).

Syntax errors in expressions typed into the interactive system (instead of taken from files) are not repaired very well, since the parser cannot take advantage of lookahead beyond what you have typed.

If a syntax error is found in a program, then semantic errors will not be reported (and the program will not be executed).

For more detailed discussion of syntax errors generated by the parser, see the explanations of errors [76] through [79] below.

Compiler Bug Error Messages

Error messages that start with "Error: Compiler bug: indicate that an unexpected situation has been encountered by the compiler. Example:
Error: Compiler bug: ModuleUtil: getStr: bad entity
Such a message indicates a bug in the compiler, and it should be reported to , with self-contained code to reproduce the message if possible.

Most such messages will be secondary error messages, meaning that they occur immediately following a normal (i.e. non "Compiler Bug") error message. Secondary errors typically occur when a primary error disrupts the internal state or data structures of the compiler, and the corrupted state then causes further failures. The SML/NJ compiler is pretty good at recovering from errors and failing gracefully, so secondary Compiler Bug errors are rare.

Error Messages

In the example code shown for the following errors, the interactive prompt symbols have been omitted to improve readability. The user input is shown in regular font, with the compiler responses in italics. For convenient cross-referencing we have numbered the error messages, but since the messages are listed in alphabetical order, the numbers will change globally when messages are added or deleted.
[1] argument of raise is not an exception
The expression following the raise keyword should evaluate to an exception value, i.e. a value of type exn. In this case, the value has some other, inappropriate type. E.g.:
  raise 3;
  stdIn:16.7 Error: argument of raise is not an exception [literal]
    raised: int
    in expression:
      raise 3
[2] argument type variables in datatype replication
In a datatype replication declaration, neither the type name on the left hand side nor the type path (longid) on the right hand side should be preceeded by formal type variable arguments, even if the right hand side datatype is of arity n>0.
  datatype 'a T = A of 'a;
  datatype 'a T = A of 'a

  datatype 'a T1 = datatype T;
  stdIn:18.1-18.28 Error: argument type variables in datatype replication

  datatype T1 = datatype T;
  datatype 'a T = A of 'a
[3] can't find function arguments in clause
This occurs when an formal parameter pattern is not supplied on the left hand side in a fun declaration, or one of the formal parameters of an infix function symbol is missing.
  fun f = 3;
  stdIn:1.5 Error: can't find function arguments in clause

  infix 3 ++;
  infix 3 ++

  fun (x xx) = 3;
  stdIn:1.5-2.6 Error: can't find function arguments in clause
  stdIn:1.5-2.6 Error: illegal function symbol in clause
[4] case object and rules don't agree
The case object is the expression following the case keyword. It's type must agree with the type of the lhs patterns in the rules (pat => exp) following the of keyword. All the patterns of the rules also have to agree in type, but that is another error.
  case 3
    of true => 1
     | false => 2;
  stdIn:1.1-25.16 Error: case object and rules don't agree [literal]
    rule domain: bool
    object: int
    in expression:
      (case 3
	of true => 1
	 | false => 2)
[5] clauses don't all have function name
In a fun definition, the function name must appear in each clause. If it is omitted from one or more clauses, this error results.
  fun f nil = 1
    | (x::y) = x;
  stdIn:1.5-17.15 Error: clauses don't all have function name
This error is also reported when the function name in two clauses of the function definition differ, for instance because of a misspelling.
  fun test (SOME s) = true
    | teat (NONE) = false;
  stdIn:120.5-121.24 Error: clauses don't all have function name
[6] clauses don't all have same number of patterns
In a fun declaration, each clause, or rule, separated by | (vertical bar symbol), has to have the same number of curried arguments.
  fun f x y = 3
    | f a b c = 4;
  stdIn:1.5-26.16 Error: clauses don't all have same number of patterns
  stdIn:24.6-26.16 Error: types of rules don't agree [tycon mismatch]
    earlier rule(s): 'Z * 'Y -> int
    this rule: 'X * 'W * 'V -> int
    in rule:
      (a,b,c) => 4
[7] constant constructor applied to argument in pattern: %
A constant constructor like nil can't be applied to an argument in a pattern.
  val nil x = [];
  stdIn:1.5-24.8 Error: constant constructor applied to argument in pattern:nil
[8] constructor and argument don't agree in pattern
A nonconstant constructor in a pattern must be applied to an argument pattern of the appropriate type (i.e. the domain type of the constructor).
  datatype t = A of int;
  val A true = A 3;
  stdIn:1.1-26.3 Error: constructor and argument don't agree in pattern [tycon mismatch]
    constructor: int -> t
    argument:    bool
    in pattern:
      A true
[9] data constructor % used without argument in pattern
A nonconstant constructor must be applied to an argument when it is used in a pattern (though not necessarily when it is used in an expression).
  datatype t = A of int
  val A = A 3;
  stdIn:17.5-17.12 Error: data constructor A used without argument in pattern
[10] datatype % does not match specification
Usually occurs because the constructors for a datatype declared in a structure don't agree with the constructors (in names or number) of a signature that the structure must match.
  signature S =
  sig
    datatype t = A of int
  end;
  signature S = sig datatype t = A of int end

  structure A : S =
  struct
    datatype t = A of int | B
  end;
  stdIn:1.1-27.4 Error: datatype t does not match specification
     constructors in actual only: B
[11] datatype % has duplicate constructor name(s): %, %
The names of the constructors of a given datatype must all be distinct.
  datatype t = A | B | A of int;
  stdIn:1.1-26.5 Error: datatype t has duplicate constructor name(s): A
[12] dependency cycle in instantiate
The instantiate process takes a signature and creates a dummy structure matching that signature with no extraneous sharing (i.e. no types are identified that don't need to be). This process can fail because of various kinds of circularities. An example of one of the simpler forms of circularity would be:
  signature S =
  sig
    type u
    datatype s = A of u
    sharing type u = s
  end;
  stdIn:16.1-21.4 Error: dependency cycle in instantiate
By default, every signature is instantiated when it is declared, to detect errors as early as possible. However, signature instantiation is strictly only necessary when a signature is used as a functor parameter signature or in an opaque (:>) signature constraint.

[13] duplicate constructor specifications for % caused by include
A signature should have only one specification of a given value or constructor name. A common way that multiple constructor specifications for a name can occur is if a constructor is specified explicitly, and also implicitly through an included signature.
  signature S =
  sig
    datatype t = A of int
  end;
  signature S = sig datatype t = A of int end

  signature T =
  sig
    datatype u = A
    include S
  end;
  stdIn:27.3-28.13 Error: duplicate constructor specifications for A caused by include
[14] duplicate exception declaration
An exception name is declared multiple times in a single exception declaration.
  exception E of int
  and E of bool;
  stdIn:17.1-18.14 Error: duplicate exception declaration: E
Note that it is ok if the same exception name is declared in different exception declarations, as in the following.
  exception E of int;
  exception E of int

  exception E of bool;
  exception E of bool
[15] duplicate function name in val rec dec
When declaring several functions in a single val rec declaration, the names of the functions must be distinct.
  val rec f = (fn x => x)
  and f = (fn y => y + 3);
  stdIn:21.1-22.24 Error: duplicate function name in val rec dec: f
[16] duplicate function names in fun dec
When declaring several functions in a single fun declaration, the names of the functions must be distinct.
  fun f x = x
  and f y = y + 3;
  stdIn:1.1-23.16 Error: duplicate function names in fun dec: f
[17] duplicate label in record
The label names in a record expression or pattern must be distinct.
  {a=3,b=true,a="abc"};
  stdIn:1.1-1.21 Error: duplicate label in record: a
  fun f {a=x,a=y} = 3;
  stdIn:2.2-2.11 Error: duplicate label in record: a
[18] duplicate specifications for % % in signature
Only one specification for a given name in a given name space is allowed in signatures. Values and constructors (including exception constructors) are in one name space; types, structures, and functors are disjoint name spaces. So x cannot be specified twice as a value or constructor, but it can be specified as a value, as a type, as a structure, and as a functor in the same signature.
  signature S =
  sig
    val x : int
    val x : bool
  end;
  stdIn:20.3-21.16 Error: duplicate specifications for variable or constructor x in signature

  signature S =
  sig
    type t
    type t
  end;
  stdIn:24.3-25.10 Error: duplicate specifications for type constructor t in signature
  signature S =
  sig
    exception Foo
    exception Foo of int
  end;
  stdIn:28.3-29.24 Error: duplicate specifications for variable or constructor Foo in signature

  signature S =
  sig
    structure A : sig end
    structure A : sig end
  end;
  stdIn:32.3-33.25 Error: duplicate specifications for structure A in signature

  signature S =
  sig
    val x : int
    datatype t = x
  end;
  stdIn:36.3-37.18 Error: duplicate specifications for variable or constructor x in signature

  signature S =
  sig
    val x : int
    type x
    structure x : sig end
  end;
  signature S =
    sig
      val x : int
      type x
      structure x : sig end
    end
[19] duplicate specifications for functor % caused by include
Multiple specifications for a functor name occur in a signature, with one of the later ones introduced via an include spec. If the included functor spec comes first, you get error [19] instead.
  signature S1 =
  sig
    functor F () : sig end
  end;
  signature S1 = sig functor F : (: ) :  end

  signature S2 =
  sig
    include S1
    functor F(X: sig val x : int end): sig end
  end;
  stdIn:55.3-56.46 Error: duplicate specifications for functor F in signature

  signature S2 =
  sig
    functor F(X: sig val x : int end): sig end
    include S1
  end;
  stdIn:59.3-60.14 Error: duplicate specifications for functor F caused by include
[20] duplicate specifications for structure % caused by include
Multiple specifications for a structure name occur in a signature, with one of the later ones introduced via an include spec. If the included structure spec comes first, you get error [19] instead.
  signature S1 =
  sig
    structure A : sig end
  end;
  signature S1 = sig structure A : sig end end

  signature S2 =
  sig
    structure A : sig val x : int end
    include S1
  end;
  stdIn:67.3-68.14 Error: duplicate specifications for structure A caused by include

  signature S3 =
  sig
    include S1
    structure A : sig val x : int end
  end;
  stdIn:71.3-72.37 Error: duplicate specifications for structure A in signature
[21] duplicate specifications for type % caused by include
Multiple specifications for a type name occur in a signature, with one of the later ones introduced via an include spec. If the included structure spec comes first, you get error [19] instead.
  signature S1 =
  sig
    type t
  end;
  signature S1 = sig type t end

  signature S2 =
  sig
    type 'a t
    include S1
  end;
  stdIn:79.3-80.14 Error: duplicate specifications for type t caused by include

  signature S3 =
  sig
    include S1
    type 'a t
  end;
  stdIn:83.3-84.13 Error: duplicate specifications for type constructor t in signature
[22] duplicate type definition
A type name is defined twice in a single simultaneous type declaration (i.e. type declarations separated by and. If the simultaneous declaration is split into separate declarations, there is no error.
  type t = int
  and t = bool;
  stdIn:17.1-18.13 Error: duplicate type definition: t

  type t = int;
  type t = int
  type t = bool;
  type t = bool
[23] duplicate type names in type declaration
A type name is defined multiple times in a datatype declaration (including possibly in the withtype part.
  datatype t = A
  and t = B;
  stdIn:1.1-19.10 Error: duplicate type names in type declaration: t

  datatype t = A
  withtype t = int;
  stdIn:1.1-20.17 Error: duplicate type names in type declaration: t
[24] duplicate type variable name
A type variable name is repeated in a type parameter list, when defining an n-ary type or datatype constructor, or explicitly binding types in a value declaration.
  type ('a,'a) t = 'a * 'a;
  stdIn:21.4-21.11 Error: duplicate type variable name: a

  datatype ('a,'a) t = A of 'a;
  stdIn:1.1-21.15 Error: duplicate type variable name: a

  fun ('a,'a) f(x:'a) = x;
  stdIn:1.1-21.10 Error: duplicate type variable name: a
[25] duplicate value specifications for % caused by include
Multiple specifications for a value name occur in a signature, with one of the later ones introduced via an include spec. If the included structure spec comes first, you get error [19] instead. It does not matter whether the multiple value specifications give the same type or not.
  signature S1 =
  sig
    val x : int
  end;
  signature S1 = sig val x : int end

  signature S2 =
  sig
    val x : bool
    include S1
  end;
  stdIn:29.3-30.14 Error: duplicate value specifications for x caused by include

  signature S3 =
  sig
    val x : int
    include S1
  end;
  stdIn:33.3-34.14 Error: duplicate value specifications for x caused by include

  signature S4 =
  sig
    include S1
    val x : int
  end;
  stdIn:37.3-38.15 Error: duplicate specifications for variable or constructor x in signature
[26] duplicate variable in pattern(s)
A variable may only occur once in a pattern (or in the sequence of argument patterns of a curried function declaration.
  fun f(x,x) = x;
  stdIn:1.5-2.10 Error: duplicate variable in pattern(s): x

  fun f x x = x;
  stdIn:1.5-2.9 Error: duplicate variable in pattern(s): x

  val (x,x) = (3,3);
  stdIn:1.1-36.3 Error: duplicate variable in pattern(s): x
[27] explicit type variable cannot be generalized at its binding declaration: %
A type variable used in a type constraint within a value expression or declaration must be generalized at the appropriate point (determined either explicitly or implicitly). If the type variable cannot be generalized at that point because of the value restriction, this error message results.
  val x : 'a list = (fn x => x) nil;
  stdIn:1.1-37.14 Error: explicit type variable cannot be generalized at its binding declaration: 'a

  val 'a (x: 'a list) = (fn x => x) nil;
  stdIn:1.1-38.5 Error: explicit type variable cannot be generalized at its binding declaration: 'a
[28] expression and handler don't agree
The type of the right hand side of the each rule in an exception handler must agree with the type of the base expression that the handler is attached to, because the value returned by the entire handle expression is either that of the base expression or the value returned by one of the handler rules.
  fun f x = (hd x)+1 handle Empty => true;
  stdIn:2.6-38.7 Error: expression and handler don't agree [literal]
    body:          int
    handler range:          bool
    in expression:
      hd x + 1
      handle
	  Empty => true
      | exn => raise exn
[29] expression or pattern begins with infix identifier "%"
An infix identifier cannot be the first identifier in an expression, unless it is preceded by the op keyword.
  +(2,3);
  stdIn:1.1 Error: expression or pattern begins with infix identifier "+"

  op +(2,3);
  val it = 5 : int
[30] expression or pattern ends with infix identifier "%"
An expression cannot end with an infix identifier. Perhaps there is a missing op keyword.
  2 +;
  stdIn:40.4 Error: expression or pattern ends with infix identifier "+"
  stdIn:40.1-40.4 Error: operator is not a function [literal]
    operator: int
    in expression:
      2 +

  (fn x => x) +;
  stdIn:40.3 Error: expression or pattern ends with infix identifier "+"

  (fn x => x) op +;
  val it = fn : int * int -> int
[31] fixity precedence must be between 0 and 9
This one is obvious. When defining new infix operators, you have to fit them into the existing precedence ranking, which is limited to ten levels, from 0 to 9, with higher numbers giving stronger precedence. See the Top Level Environment chapter of the Basis documentation for the precedences of the predefined infix operators.
  infix 10 ++;
  stdIn:43.7-43.9 Error: fixity precedence must be between 0 and 9

  infix ~2 ++;
  stdIn:2.2-2.4 Error: fixity precedence must be between 0 and 9
[32] found data constructor instead of exception
In a context where an exception constructor identifier was expected, a dataconstructor identifier was found instead.
  exception Foo = nil;
  stdIn:17.1-17.20 Error: found data constructor instead of exception
[33] found variable instead of exception
In a context where an exception constructor identifier was expected, a value variable was found instead.
  val x = 3;
  val x = 3 : int
  exception Foo = x;
  stdIn:18.1-18.18 Error: found variable instead of exception
[34] handler domain is not exn
In the rules following the handler keyword, the type of the patterns on the left hand side the rule must be exn. In the example below, the first error message is caused by a mismatch with an implicit default rule that handles exceptions not handled by the explicit rules of the handler.
  3 handle nil => 4;
  stdIn:1.1-18.7 Error: types of rules don't agree [tycon mismatch]
    earlier rule(s): 'Z list -> int
    this rule: exn -> 'Y
    in rule:
      exn => raise exn
  stdIn:1.1-18.7 Error: handler domain is not exn [tycon mismatch]
    handler domain: 'Z list
    in expression:
      3
      handle
	  nil => 4
      | exn => raise exn
[35] ill-formed datatype spec
In a datatype replication specification in a signature, type parameters were found on the left hand side of the specification.
  signature S =
  sig
    datatype 'a t = datatype bool
  end;
  stdIn:26.3-26.33 Error: ill-formed datatype spec
[36] illegal (multiple?) type constraints in AS pattern
The value variable in front of the as keyword can have a type constraint, but only one. This error also occurs in other circumstances, as illustrated by the second example.
  val x : int list : int list as y::z = [1,2];
  stdIn:29.5-29.36 Error: illegal (multiple?) type constraints in AS pattern

  val (x: int list) as (y::z : int list) = [1];
  stdIn:1.5-24.10 Error: illegal (multiple?) type constraints in AS pattern
  stdIn:1.5-24.10 Error: parentheses illegal around variable in AS pattern

  val x : int list as (y::z) = [1,2];
  stdIn:1.1-24.6 Warning: binding not exhaustive
	    x as y :: z = ...
  val x = [1,2] : int list
  val y = 1 : int
  val z = [2] : int list
[37] illegal function symbol in clause
In a function declaration, the left hand side between the keyword fun and the equal sign must be a well-formed applicative term, and the operator (i.e. the function part of the top-level application) of this term must be a simple identifier. If the application has an infix operator, it must be parenthesized (unless followed immediately by a type constraint or the equal sign); otherwise it may not be parenthesized.
  fun (f x) = 3;  (* bad parentheses *)
  stdIn:1.5-2.5 Error: can't find function arguments in clause
  stdIn:1.5-2.5 Error: illegal function symbol in clause

  fun (x+y) = 3;  (* ok; redefines infix + operator *)
  val + = fn : 'a * 'b -> int
[38] inconsistent arities in type sharing % = %: % has arity % and % has arity %
Two types involved in a type sharing constraint have different arities.
  signature XSIG = sig
    datatype ('a, 'b) t = A of 'a | B of 'b
  end

  functor F
     (type u
      structure X: XSIG
	  sharing type X.t = u) =
  struct
  end

  stdIn:49.11-54.6 Error: inconsistent arities in type sharing t = u : t
  has arity 2 and u has arity 0.
[39] inconsistent equality properties in type sharing
This error occurs when type constructors with incompatible equality properties are equated by sharing constraints. When this happens, the signature is not consistent, and could not be successfully matched.
  signature S =
  sig
    eqtype t
    datatype u = U of int -> int  (* not an equality type *)
    sharing type t = u
  end;
  stdIn:17.1-22.4 Error: inconsistent equality properties in type sharing
[40] infix operator "%" used without "op" in fun dec
A function symbol declared to be an infix symbol is used in a function declaration used to declare nonfix functions.
  infix foo;
  infix foo
  fun foo (x,y) = x + y;
  stdIn:34.5-34.8 Error: infix operator "foo" used without "op" in fun dec
The correct definition is:
  fun op foo(x,y) = x +y;
  val foo = fn : int * int -> int
[41] infix operator required, or delete parentheses
The first term following keyword fun in a function declaration is a parenthesized application, implying an infix application, but the middle subterm is not an infix symbol.
  fun (x f y) = ();  (* would work if "f" were infix *)
  stdIn:18.8 Error: infix operator required, or delete parentheses

  fun x f y = ();    (* ok, but maybe not what was intended *)
  val x = fn : 'a -> 'b -> unit
[42] infix symbol "%" used where a nonfix identifier was expected
In a val rec declaration, the if the identifier being declared (on the left hand side of the declaration) is an infix symbol, it must be preceeded by the op keyword.
  infix ++;
  infix ++
  val rec ++ = (fn x => x);
  stdIn:17.9-17.11 Error: infix symbol "++" used where a nonfix identifier was expected

  val rec op ++ = (fn x => x);
  val ++ = fn : 'a -> 'a
[43] install_pp: empty path
The function Compiler.PPTable.install_pp installs a user-defined pretty printer function (the second argument) for a generative (i.e. datatype or abstype) designated by the first argument, which must be a nonempty list of strings that can be interpreted as a symbolic path (longTyCon) naming a datatype or abstract type in the current environment. This function should only be called at top level.
  Compiler.PPTable.install_pp [] (fn x => fn y => ());
   Error: install_pp: empty path
[44] install_pp: nongenerative type constructor
The function Compiler.PPTable.install_pp installs a user-defined pretty printer function (the second argument) for a generative (i.e. datatype or abstype) designated by the first argument, which must be a nonempty list of strings that can be interpreted as a symbolic path (longTyCon) naming a datatype or abstype in the current environment. This function should only be called at top level.
  Compiler.PPTable.install_pp ["t"] (fn x => fn y => ());
   Error: install_pp: nongenerative type constructor
[45] int constant too large
Integer literal in program is too large. Default integers are represented using 31 bits, and range from ~1073741824 to 1073741823, or from:
	 Option.valOf(Int.minInt) to Option.valOf(Int.maxInt)
  val x = 1073741823;
  val x = 1073741823 : int

  val x = 1073741824;
  stdIn:2.4-22.7 Error: int constant too large

  val x = ~1073741824;
  val x = ~1073741824 : int

  val  x = ~1073741825;
  stdIn:30.10-30.21 Error: int constant too large
[46] match nonexhaustive
Insufficient patterns in clause to match against all the possible inputs. This is an error if the flag Compiler.Control.MC.matchNonExhaustiveError is set to true (the default is false), otherwise it is a warning if Compiler.Control.MC.matchNonExhaustiveWarn is set to true. If neither of these flags is true, then the compiler does not complain about nonexhaustive matches.
  fun f 0 = 1
    | f 1 = 1;
  stdIn:1.1-22.12 Error: match nonexhaustive
	    0 => ...
	    1 => ...

  val f = fn : int -> int
[47] match redundant
A pattern is provided that is covered by some earlier pattern. If the compiler flag Compiler.Control.MC.matchRedundantError is set to false (default is true), only a warning message is given. If Compiler.Control.MC.matchRedundantWarn is also false (default is true), no message is generated.
  fun f (0, true) = 1
    | f (0, false) = 2
    | f (0, _) = 3
    | f _ = 4;
  stdIn:24.1-27.14 Error: match redundant
	    (0,true) => ...
	    (0,false) => ...
      -->   (0,_) => ...
	    _ => ...
[48] match redundant and nonexhaustive
A pattern is provided that is covered by some earlier pattern, and the set of patterns do not cover all the possible inputs. Whether this message is generated, and its severity (Error or Warning), are controlled by the compiler flags
    Compiler.Control.MC.matchNonExhaustiveError
    Compiler.Control.MC.matchNonExhaustiveWarn
    Compiler.Control.MC.matchRedundantError
    Compiler.Control.MC.matchRedundantWarn
Example:
  fun f 1 = 1
    | f 2 = 3
    | f 1 = 4 ;
  stdIn:1.1-24.12 Error: match redundant and nonexhaustive
	    1 => ...
	    2 => ...
      -->   1 => ...
[49] multiple where defs for %
The where clauses of a signature expression must not bind the same type-specification multiple times.
  signature S = sig
    type t
  end
  where type t = int
    and type t = bool;
  stdIn:1.1-72.20 Error: multiple where defs for t
or even:
  signature S = sig
    type t
  end
  where type t = int
    and type t = int;
  stdIn:1.1-76.19 Error: multiple where defs for t
[50] non-constructor applied to argument in pattern
The value applied to an argument in a pattern is not a constructor.
  fun f (0 0) = true;
  stdIn:17.5-17.19 Error: non-constructor applied to argument in pattern
[51] non-constructor applied to argument in pattern: %
Same error as [58]. This particular error occurs when the applied value has a name that can be reported.
  val a = 0;
  val a = 0 : int

  fun f (a 0) = true;
  stdIn:18.5-18.19 Error: non-constructor applied to argument in pattern: a
[52] nonlocal path in structure sharing: %
A structure participating in a structure sharing specification was not declared in the current signature.
  signature S = sig
    structure A : sig end
    sharing A = B.C
  end;
  stdIn:41.11-41.18 Error: nonlocal path in structure sharing: B.C
[53] nonlocal path in type sharing: %
A type participating in a type sharing specification was not declared in the current signature.
  signature S = sig
    type t
    sharing type t = B.t
  end;
  stdIn:44.16-44.23 Error: nonlocal path in type sharing: B.t
[54] operator and operand don't agree
A function (operator) is applied to a value (operand) with a type different than the type expected by the function.
  fun f true = 0
    | f false = 1;
  val f = fn : bool -> int

  f 3;
  stdIn:25.1-25.4 Error: operator and operand don't agree [literal]
    operator domain: bool
    operand:         int
    in expression:
      f 3
[55] operator is not a function
The value used in operator position is not a function.
  3 true;
  stdIn:1.1-19.6 Error: operator is not a function [literal]
    operator: int
    in expression:
      3 true
[56] or-patterns don't agree
In a pattern that uses or-ed subpatterns (via |), the type of all the subpatterns must agree.
  fun f (0 | 1 | true) = 0;
  stdIn:1.1-21.4 Error: or-patterns don't agree [literal]
    expected: int
    found: bool
    in pattern:
      (1 | true)
[57] out-of-range word literal in pattern: 0w%
A word literal used in a pattern is larger than the largest representable word.
  fun f 0w100000000000 = 0
    | f _ = 1;
  stdIn:1.1-27.12 Error: out-of-range word literal in pattern: 0w100000000000
[58] overloaded variable not defined at type
An overloaded variable is being instantiated at a type for which it has no definition. Typical overloaded variables include numerical operations, overloaded over the numerical types (int, word, etc.)
  true + true;
  stdIn:19.5 Error: overloaded variable not defined at type
    symbol: +
    type: bool
[59] parameter or result constraints of clauses don't agree
In a fun declaration, each clause, or rule, separated by | (vertical bar symbol), has to have the same type (both in the type accepted by the clauses, and the type returned by the clauses).
  datatype typeA = A;
  datatype typeA = A
  datatype typeB = B;
  datatype typeB = B
  fun f A = 0
    | f B = 0;
  stdIn:36.1-37.12 Error: parameter or result constraints of clauses don't agree [tycon mismatch]
    this clause:      typeB -> 'Z
    previous clauses:      typeA -> 'Z
    in declaration:
      f =
	(fn A => 0
	  | B => 0)
[60] parentheses illegal around variable in AS pattern
In an "as"-pattern pat as pat, where the pattern to the left of the "as" is a simple variable, the variable must not be wrapped in parentheses.
  val ((a) as (b,c)) = (4,5);
  stdIn:19.5-31.2 Error: parentheses illegal around variable in AS pattern
[61] pattern and constraint don't agree
In a pattern, the type of the pattern and the constaint type of the pattern must agree.
  fun f (0:bool)=0;
  stdIn:38.1-38.17 Error: pattern and constraint don't agree [literal]
    pattern:    int
    constraint:    bool
    in pattern:
      0 : bool
[62] pattern and expression in val dec don't agree
In a declaration val pat = exp, the type of pat must match the type of exp.
  val s:string = 6;
  stdIn:1.1-18.6 Error: pattern and expression in val dec don't agree [literal]
    pattern:    string
    expression:    int
    in declaration:
      s : string = 6
[63] pattern and expression in val dec don't agree
In a declaration val pat = exp, the type of pat must match the type of exp.
  val s:string = 6;
  stdIn:1.1-18.6 Error: pattern and expression in val dec don't agree [literal]
    pattern:    string
    expression:    int
    in declaration:
      s : string = 6
[64] pattern to left of "as" must be variable
In an "as"-pattern pat as pat, the first pattern must be a simple variable, not a more complex pattern using tuples or data constructors.
  val (a,_) as (_,b) = (7,5);
  stdIn:1.5-18.8 Error: pattern to left of AS must be variable
[65] pattern to left of AS must be variable
In an "as"-pattern pat as pat, the first pattern must be a simple variable, not a more complex pattern using tuples or data constructors.
  val (a,_) as (_,b) = (7,5);
  stdIn:1.5-18.8 Error: pattern to left of AS must be variable
[66] possibly inconsistent structure definitions at: %
When a signature contains a sharing constraint between two structure-specifications, each of which is specified using a where clause, the compiler is unable to calculate whether the structures are compatible. This is a bug in the compiler and will be fixed in a future version.
  signature SIG =
  sig
     structure A : sig end
     structure B : sig structure Z : sig end
                   end where Z = A
     structure C : sig structure Z : sig end
                   end where Z = A
     sharing B = C
  end;

  stdIn:1.1-38.4 Error: possibly inconsistent structure definitions at: B.Z
[67] real constant out of range: %
A real literal must have an exponent in the proper range for the floating-point representation of the target machine. At present all SML/NJ target machines use IEEE double-precision floating point, so real literals must be in the range ~1.79769313486e308 to 1.79769313486e308.
  2e309;

  uncaught exception BadReal
    raised at: bignums/realconst.sml:228.54-228.63
At present, a bug in the compiler raises an exception instead of printing the appropriate error message.

[68] rebinding data constructor "%" as variable
An identifier bound as a data constructor cannot be rebound as a variable in a pattern.
  fun nil x = x;
  stdIn:1.5-2.9 Error: rebinding data constructor "nil" as variable
[69] redundant patterns in match
In a multi-clause pattern match, if one of the later patterns can only match cases that are covered by earlier patterns, then the later pattern is redundant and can never be matched. In SML '97 it is an error to have useless (redundant) patterns.
  4 handle Match => 5 | e => 6 | Bind => 7;
  stdIn:1.1-20.15 Error: redundant patterns in match
            Match => ...
            e => ...
      -->   Bind => ...
[70] redundant where definitions
The where clauses of a signature expression must not bind the same structure-specification to different structures.
  signature S1 =
  sig
    structure A : sig type t end
  end
  where A=Int and A=Real;
  stdIn:32.1-36.23 Error: redundant where definitions
[71] rhs of datatype replication not a datatype
The declaration
  datatype id1 = datatype id2
that binds the name id1 to the existing datatype id2, requires that id2 must be a datatype, and not an ordinary type.
  datatype myint = datatype int;
  stdIn:38.1-38.30 Error: rhs of datatype replication not a datatype
[72] rhs of datatype replication spec not a datatype
The specification
  datatype id1 = datatype id2
that binds the name id1 to the existing datatype id2, requires that id2 must be a datatype, and not an ordinary type.
  signature S = sig type t
                    datatype d = datatype t
                end;
  stdIn:37.18-40.17 Error: rhs of datatype replication spec not a datatype
[73] right-hand-side of clause doesn't agree with function result type
The body of (each clause of) a function must have the type specified in the function-result type constraint (if it is present).
  fun f(x) : int = "hello";
  stdIn:1.1-37.24 Error: right-hand-side of clause doesn't agree with function result type [tycon mismatch]
    expression:  string
    result type:  int
    in declaration:
      f = (fn x => "hello": int)
[74] sharing structure with a descendent substructure
A structure cannot share with one of its components.
  signature S = sig structure A : sig structure B : sig end end
                    sharing A = A.B
                end;
  stdIn:1.1-44.20 Error: Sharing structure with a descendent substructure
[75] structure % defined by partially applied functor
Functors in SML/NJ may be higher-order, so that the functor F in the example below returns (as its result) another functor, which in turn returns a structure. The result of applying F to an argument cannot, therefore, be bound to a structure name.
  functor F()() = struct end;
  functor F : 

  structure S = F();
  stdIn:45.15-45.18 Error: structure S defined by partially applied functor
[76] syntax error found at %
This message is produced if the parser finds a syntax error and is unable to correct the problem using its built-in heuristics (deletion, insertion, or replacement of tokens). Example:
  x andalso val y orelse z;
  stdIn:1.6 Error: syntax error found at VAL
Note: Error correction in the parser relies on lookahead. Different amounts of lookahead are used depending on whether input is taken from the interactive toplevel or from a source file. Therefore, error messages for the same program can vary depending on circumstances. (See also the note on error [78].)

[77] syntax error: deleting %
This message indicates that the error-correcting parser attempted to rectify a syntax error by deleting (ignoring) some input token(s).

For example, let's assume that file delete.sml contains the following code:

  structure 99 X =
      struct
	  val x = 1
      end
Compiling this file produces:
  - use "delete.sml";
  [opening delete.sml]
  delete.sml:1.11-1.13 Error: syntax error: deleting  INT
Note: Error correction in the parser relies on lookahead. Different amounts of lookahead are used depending on whether input is taken from the interactive toplevel or from a source file. Therefore, error messages for the same program can vary depending on circumstances. (See also the note on error [78].)

[78] syntax error: inserting %
This error message, like the previous one, is generated by SML/NJ's error-correcting parser. It indicates that the parser was able to correct a syntactic error by inserting an additional token.

For example, let's assume that file insert.sml contains the following code:

  let
    val x = 1; y = x + x
  in
    x * y
  end
Compiling this file produces:
  - use "insert.sml";
  [opening insert.sml]
  insert.sml:2.16 Error: syntax error: inserting  VAL
Note: Error correction in the parser relies on lookahead. Since the interactive parser cannot use lookahead, it is likely that its syntax error messages differ from those that are generated when compiling files. For example, typing the contents of insert.sml directly into the interactive toplevel produces:
  let
    val x = 1; y = x + x
  in
    x * y
  end;
  stdIn:2.14-2.19 Error: syntax error: deleting  ID EQUALOP ID
  stdIn:2.20-3.3 Error: syntax error: deleting  ID ID IN
  stdIn:4.3-4.8 Error: syntax error: deleting  ID ASTERISK ID
[79] syntax error: replacing % with %
The parser found a syntax error and has attempted to fix the problem by replacing some token(s) by some other token(s).

For example, let's assume that file replace.sml contains the following code:

  fn x = x
Compiling this file produces:
  - use "replace.sml";
  [opening replace.sml]
  replace.sml:1.6 Error: syntax error: replacing  EQUALOP with  DARROW
Note: Error correction in the parser relies on lookahead. Different amounts of lookahead are used depending on whether input is taken from the interactive toplevel or from a source file. Therefore, error messages for the same program can vary depending on circumstances. (See also the note on error [78].)

[80] tycon arity for % does not match specified arity
The arity of a type constructor differs between the definition inside a structure and its declaration in the corresponding signature constraint.

Example:

  signature S = sig type ('a, 'b) t end;
  signature S = sig type ('a,'b) t end

  structure S : S = struct
    type 'a t = 'a list
  end;
  stdIn:75.1-77.4 Error: tycon arity for t does not match specified arity
[81] type % must be a datatype
This message indicates that the signature constraint for a given structure requires some type to be a datatype but the structure defines it as different type (i.e., not a datatype).

Example:

signature S = sig datatype t = A | B end;
signature S = sig datatype t = A | B end

structure S : S = struct
  type t = int
end;
stdIn:80.1-82.4 Error: type t must be a datatype
stdIn:80.1-82.4 Error: unmatched constructor specification: A
stdIn:80.1-82.4 Error: unmatched constructor specification: B
[82] type % must be an equality type
This error message is issued when the definition for some type inside a structure does not permit equality while the corresponding signature constraint for the structure specifies that type as an eqtype.

Example:

  signature S = sig eqtype t end;
  signature S = sig eqtype t end

  structure S : S = struct
    type t = int -> int
  end;
  stdIn:86.1-88.4 Error: type t must be an equality type
[83] type constraint of val rec dec is not a function type
Names that are defined using val rec must refer to function values. Therefore, their types must be function types.

Example:

  val rec f : int = fn x => x;
  stdIn:1.1-79.26 Error: type constraint of val rec dec is not a function type [tycon mismatch]
    constraint:           int
    in declaration:
      f = (fn x => x)
[84] type constraints on val rec declaraction [sic] disagree
This error message occurs when a declaration has the form
  val rec id : ty1 = exp : ty2
and the types ty1 and ty2 disagree.
  val rec f : int -> int = (fn x => x) : bool -> bool;
  stdIn:1.1-29.30 Error: type constraints on val rec declaraction disagree [tycon mismatch]
    this constraint:   bool -> bool
    outer constraints:   int -> int
    in declaration:
      f = (fn x => x): bool -> bool

[85] type constructor % given % arguments, wants %
A type constructor was used with the wrong number of type arguments.

Example:

  type ('a, 'b) t = 'a * 'b;
  type ('a,'b) t = 'a * 'b

  type u = (int, bool, real) t;
  stdIn:103.28 Error: type constructor t given 3 arguments, wants 2
[86] type variable % occurs with different equality properties in the same scope
This message indicates that different occurences of the same type variable have inconsistent equality properties. In practice this means that the same name of a type variable was used both with one apostrophe and with two apostrophes. (Note that this would have been ok if the two occurences are clearly separated by scope.)

Example:

  fun f (x: 'a, y: ''a) = (x, y);
  stdIn:118.2-119.12 Error: type variable a occurs with different equality properties in the same scope
But:
  fun 'a f (x: 'a) = let
    fun ''a g (y: ''a) = y = y
  in x end;
  val f = fn : 'a -> 'a
[87] type variable in exception spec: %
Exception declarations in signatures cannot contain type variables.

Example:

  signature S = sig
    exception E of 'a list
  end;
  stdIn:135.3-135.26 Error: type variable in exception spec: E
[88] type variable in top level exception type
Exception definitions at top level cannot contain type variables.

Example:

  exception E of 'a list;
  stdIn:1.1-135.4 Error: type variable in top level exception type
[89] types of rules don't agree
The right-hand sides of the rules in a match must agree in type. Matches occur both in case- and in fn-expressions.

Examples:

  fn true => false
   | false => 1;
  stdIn:144.1-144.30 Error: types of rules don't agree [literal]
    earlier rule(s): bool -> bool
    this rule: bool -> int
    in rule:
      false => 1

  fn x =>
     case x
       of true => false
	| false => 1;
  stdIn:144.6-144.42 Error: types of rules don't agree [literal]
    earlier rule(s): bool -> bool
    this rule: bool -> int
    in rule:
      false => 1
[90] unbound functor signature: %
This error message is related to SML/NJ's higher-order module extension to Standard ML. The constraint on a functor declaration in some signature uses an undefined functor signature name.

Example:

  signature S = sig
    functor F: FS
  end;
  stdIn:145.3-145.17 Error: unbound functor signature: FS
[91] unbound functor: %
The name of the functor being used is not defined.

Example:

  structure S = F ();
  stdIn:147.15-147.19 Error: unbound functor: F
[92] unbound left hand side in where (structure): %
A where specification refers to a structure inside a signature that was not declared there.

Example:

  structure A = struct end;
  structure A : sig end

  signature S = sig end;
  signature S = sig end

  signature S' = S where B = A;
  stdIn:158.1-158.29 Error: unbound left hand side in where (structure): B
But:
  signature S = sig structure B : sig end end;
  signature S = sig structure B : sig end end

  signature S' = S where B = A;
  signature S' = sig structure B : sig end end
[93] unbound left hand side in where type: %
A where type specification refers to a type inside a signature that was not declared there.

Example:

  type t = int;
  type t = int

  signature S = sig end;
  signature S = sig end

  signature S' = S where type u = t;
  stdIn:169.1-169.34 Error: unbound left hand side in where type: u
But:
  signature S = sig type u end;
  signature S = sig type u end

  signature S' = S where type u = t;
  signature S' = sig type u = t end
[94] unbound signature: %
A signature name is used but it has not been defined; for instance S in the following example:
  structure A : S = struct end;
  stdIn:16.15 Error: unbound signature: S
[95] unbound structure: %
A structure name is used but it has not been defined; for instance B in the following example:
  - structure A = B;
  stdIn:2.10 Error: unbound structure: B
[96] unbound type constructor: %
A type constructor name is used but it has not been defined, for instance t in the following example:
  val x : t = ();
  stdIn:2.4 Error: unbound type constructor: t
[97] unbound type variable in type declaration: %
A type variable occurs on the right hand side of a type or datatype declaration, without having been bound as a formal parameter on the left hand side.
  type t = 'a list;
  stdIn:2.5-2.12 Error: unbound type variable in type declaration: 'a

  datatype 'a t = A of 'b;
  stdIn:1.1-18.2 Error: unbound type variable in type declaration: 'b
[98] unbound variable or constructor: %
A value variable or constructor is used without having been defined or bound as a formal parameter.
  x;
  stdIn:1.1 Error: unbound variable or constructor: x

  fun f x = x+y;
  stdIn:2.8 Error: unbound variable or constructor: y
[99] unresolved flex record (can't tell what fields there are besides %)
When a flexible record pattern (one containing ...) is used, the context must provide enough type information to determine what all the fields are (though not necessarily their types).
  fun f {x,...} = x;
  stdIn:37.1-37.18 Error: unresolved flex record
     (can't tell what fields there are besides #x)

  fun f ({x,...} : {x: int, y:bool}) = x;
  val f = fn : {x:int, y:bool} -> int
If more than one field occurs in the flexible record pattern, then a different variant of this error message is generated. See error [100].

[100] unresolved flex record (need to know the names of ALL the fields in this context)
The pattern in a pattern match was a flexible record. The pattern omitted some of the record's members and summarized their existence using ellipses ("..."). But in the given context there was not enough information for the type checker to be able to infer the missing field names.
  fun f {x,y,...} = (x,y);
  stdIn:118.1-118.24 Error: unresolved flex record (need to know the names of ALL the fields
   in this context)
    type: {x:'Y, y:'X; 'Z}
[101] value type in structure doesn't match signature spec
A value component of a structure has a different type than that specified in a signature that the structure is matched against.
  signature S =
  sig
    val x : int
  end;
  signature S = sig val x : int end

  structure A : S =
  struct
    val x = true
  end;
  stdIn:21.1-24.4 Error: value type in structure doesn't match signature spec
      name: x
    spec:   int
    actual: bool
[102] variable % does not occur in all branches of or-pattern
SML/NJ supports or-patterns, where a single rule can have several patterns separated with the | symbol. The component patterns of an or-pattern are required to have exactly the same variables with the same types.
  fun f(nil | x::_) = 1;
  stdIn:1.5-2.18 Error: variable x does not occur in all branches of or-pattern
Here the component patterns are nil and x::_, and the variable x doesn't occur in the first pattern.

[103] variable found where constructor is required: %
A symbolic path (longid) of length greater than 1 occurring in a pattern must designate a data constructor.
  fun f(Int.+) = 3;
  stdIn:1.5-2.12 Error: variable found where constructor is required: Int.+
[104] vector expression type failure
In a vector expression of the form #[exp1,exp2,...], all the vector element expressions must be of the same type.
  #[1,true];
  stdIn:1.1-2.5 Error: vector expression type failure [literal]

  fun f(x:int) = #[x,true];
  stdIn:2.11-2.20 Error: vector expression type failure [tycon mismatch]
[105] vector pattern type failure
In a vector pattern of the form #[pat1,pat2,...], all the vector element patterns must be of the same type.
  fun f(#[x:int,y:bool]) = (x + 1; not y);
  stdIn:1.1-2.35 Error: vector pattern type failure [tycon mismatch]
[106] where defn applied to definitional spec
SML/NJ does not allow multiple definitions of a structure in a signature (one through a definitional spec, another through a where clause).
  structure A = struct end;
  structure A : sig end

  signature S =
  sig
    structure X : sig end = A
  end
  where X = A;
  stdIn:27.1-31.12 Error: where defn applied to definitional spec
[107] where type definition has wrong arity: %
The arity implied by a where type definition must agree with the arity in type specification that it applies to.
  signature S =
  sig
    type 'a t
  end
  where type t = int;
  stdIn:1.1-26.19 Error: where type definition has wrong arity: t
[108] where type defn applied to definitional spec: %
SML/NJ does not allow multiple definitions of a type in a signature (one through a definitional spec, another through a where type clause).
  signature S =
  sig
    type t = int
  end
  where type t = int;
  stdIn:1.1-22.19 Error: where type defn applied to definitional spec: t
[109] withtype not allowed in datatype replication
One can't attach a withtype clause to a datatype replication declaration or specification.
  datatype t = A;
  datatype t = A

  datatype s = datatype t
  withtype u = s list;
  stdIn:37.1-38.20 Error: withtype not allowed in datatype replication
[110] word constant too large
Word constants (by default Word31.word) are limited to values less than 0w2147483648 (0wx80000000). Similarly for word literals of type Word32.word (bound 0w4294967296) and Word8.word (bound 0w256).
  0w2147483648;
  stdIn:1.1-18.3 Error: word constant too large
  0wx80000000;
  stdIn:1.1-18.2 Error: word constant too large

  0w4294967296 : Word32.word;
  stdIn:25.1-25.13 Error: word constant too large
  0wx100000000 : Word32.word;
  stdIn:23.1-23.13 Error: word constant too large

  0w256: Word8.word;
  stdIn:1.1-1.6 Error: word constant too large
  0wx100 : Word8.word;
  stdIn:1.1-24.2 Error: word constant too large

Warnings

[1] match nonexhaustive
Insufficient patterns in clause to match against all the possible inputs. This is an warning if the flag Compiler.Control.MC.matchNonExhaustiveError is set to false (the default), Compiler.Control.MC.matchNonExhaustiveWarn is set to true. If neither of these flags is true, then the compiler does not complain about nonexhaustive matches.
  fun f 0 = 1
    | f 1 = 1;
  stdIn:1.1-22.12 Warning: match nonexhaustive
	    0 => ...
	    1 => ...

  val f = fn : int -> int
[2] match redundant
A pattern is provided that is covered by some earlier pattern. This is a warning if the compiler flag Compiler.Control.MC.matchRedundantError is set to false (default is true) and Compiler.Control.MC.matchRedundantWarn is true (the default).
  fun f (0, true) = 1
    | f (0, false) = 2
    | f (0, _) = 3
    | f _ = 4;
  stdIn:24.1-27.14 Warning: match redundant
	    (0,true) => ...
	    (0,false) => ...
      -->   (0,_) => ...
	    _ => ...
[3] match redundant and nonexhaustive
A pattern is provided that is covered by some earlier pattern, and the set of patterns do not cover all the possible inputs. Whether this message is generated, and its severity (Error or Warning), are controlled by the compiler flags
    Compiler.Control.MC.matchNonExhaustiveError
    Compiler.Control.MC.matchNonExhaustiveWarn
    Compiler.Control.MC.matchRedundantError
    Compiler.Control.MC.matchRedundantWarn
If the first two are set to false and the latter two are set to true, then this warning is generated.
  fun f 1 = 1
    | f 2 = 3
    | f 1 = 4 ;
  stdIn:1.1-24.12 Warning: match redundant and nonexhaustive
	    1 => ...
	    2 => ...
      -->   1 => ...
[4] mixed left- and right-associative operators of same precedence
If an infix expression like
  aexp id1 aexp id2 aexp
involves two infix operators id1 and id2 of the same precedence but opposite associativity, the SML '97 Definition states that the expression is illegal. But SML/NJ only issues this warning message and associates the two operators to the left.
  - infix 4 <<;
  infix 4 <<
  - infixr 4 >>;
  infixr 4 >>
  - fun (x>>y) = "right";
  val >> = fn : 'a * 'b -> string
  - fun (x<<y) = "left";
  val << = fn : 'a * 'b -> string
  - 1 << 2 >> 3;
  stdIn:21.8-21.10 Warning: mixed left- and right-associative operators of same precedence
  val it = "right" : string
  - 1 >> 2 << 3;
  stdIn:22.8-22.10 Warning: mixed left- and right-associative operators of same precedence
  val it = "left" : string
[5] nongeneralizable type variable
This warning is given for a top level value declaration whose type has free type variables that cannot be generalized because of the value restriction. See the detailed discussion of the value restriction in the SML '97 Conversion Guide.
  val x = (fn x => x) nil;
  stdIn:17.1-17.24 Warning: type vars not generalized because of
     value restriction are instantiated to dummy types (X1,X2,...)
  val x = [] : ?.X1 list
In this example, the right hand side of the declaration of x has type 'X list, where 'X is a free type variable. This type variable cannot be generalized to form a polymorphic type for x because the right hand expression is expansive (a function call in this case). So the compiler eliminates the free type variable 'X be inventing a new dummy type named X1 and instantiates 'X to X1. Since X1 won't match any other type, there is little one can do with x now (one could take its lenght (0), but one cannot cons any values onto x).

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