The Format structure

The Format structure provides printf-style string formatting. The syntax of format strings is a subset of that supported by the C printf function.

Synopsis

structure Format

Interface

datatype fmt_item
  = ATOM of Atom.atom
  | LINT of LargeInt.int
  | INT of Int.int
  | LWORD of LargeWord.word
  | WORD of Word.word
  | WORD8 of Word8.word
  | BOOL of bool
  | CHR of char
  | STR of string
  | REAL of Real.real
  | LREAL of LargeReal.real
  | LEFT of (int * fmt_item)
  | RIGHT of (int * fmt_item)

exception BadFormat
exception BadFmtList

val format  : string -> fmt_item list -> string
val formatf : string -> (string -> unit) -> fmt_item list -> unit

Description

datatype fmt_item = …​

The fmt_item datatype is a union of the types that the format function supports. The constructors are interpreted as follows:

ATOM atm

specifies an atom atm to convert (the conversion specifier must be “s”).

LINT n

specifies a large integer value n to convert (the conversion specifier must be one of “d”, “o”, “x”, or “X”).

INT n

specifies a default integer value n to convert (the conversion specifier must be one of “d”, “o”, “x”, or “X”).

LWORD w

specifies a large word value w to convert (the conversion specifier must be one of “d”, “o”, “x”, or “X”).

WORD w

specifies a default word value w to convert (the conversion specifier must be one of “d”, “o”, “x”, or “X”).

WORD8 w

specifies an 8-bit word value w to convert (the conversion specifier must be one of “d”, “o”, “x”, or “X”).

BOOL b

specifies a Boolean value b to convert (the conversion specifier must be “b”).

CHR c

specifies a character value (the conversion specifier must be “c”).

STR s

specifies a string value s to convert (the conversion specifier must be “s”). The conversion is the identity; e.g., STR "\n" will produce a newline in the result string.

REAL r

specifies a default real value r to convert (the conversion specifier must be one of “e”, “E”, “f”, “F”, “g”, or “G”).

LREAL r

specifies a large real value r to convert (the conversion specifier must be one of “e”, “E”, “f”, “F”, “g”, or “G”).

LEFT(wid, item)

specifies a left-padded (right-justified) conversion, where the result of formatting item is padded on the left with spaces to the width specified by wid. Note that the padding occurs after item formatted, so it can be combined with width specifiers and zero padding.

RIGHT(wid, item)

specifies a right-padded (left-justified) conversion, where the result of formatting item is padded on the right with spaces to the width specified by wid. Note that the padding occurs after item formatted, so it can be combined with width specifiers and zero padding.

exception BadFormat

This exception is raised when either format or formatf is applied to an ill-formed format string.

exception BadFmtList

This exception is raised when there is a mismatch in either number or type between the format string and the list of items.

val format : string -> fmt_item list -> string

format fmt returns a function for formating a list of format items as a string by converting the list of items according to the format string fmt. If the format string is ill formed, the BadFormat exception will be raised. Likewise, if there is a mismatch between the conversion specifiers in the format string and the list of items, then the BadFmtList exception is raised.

val formatf : string -> (string -> unit) -> fmt_item list -> unit

format fmt consumer items is equivalent to the expression

consumer (format fmt items)

Format Strings

The format and `formatf functions take a format string and a list of format items as arguments. The format string is composed of zero or more directives, which are either ordinary characters (excluding %), which are copied to the result, or conversion specifiers, which are used to convert the corresponding format items to strings that are then added to the result.

Conversion specifiers begin with the percent (%) character followed by the following in sequence:

  • Zero or more of the following single-character flags. Note that these only apply to the numeric conversion specifiers.

    • A " " (space), which means that a space character is used as the sign for positive numbers. This flag is incompatible with the “+” flag.

    • A “+”, which means that a + character is used as the sign for positive numbers. This flag is incompatible with the "` `" flag.

    • A “~”, which means that the tilde character is used as the sign for negative numbers (i.e., SML syntax).

    • A “0”, which means that the zero character should be used to pad the number (on the left) to the requested width.

    • A “-”, which means that the minus character is used as the sign for negative numbers, which is the default behavior. Note that this interpretation of the “-” flag differs from the C printf function, where it is used to specify left justification; use the LEFT constructor for that purpose.

    • A “#”, which means that a base specifier should be prepended to the representation of the number.

  • an optional decimal number specifying a minimum field width. If the converted value has fewer characters than the field width, it will be padded on the left with spaces (or zeros, when zero-padding has been specified).

  • An optional precision, in the form of a period “.” followed by an optional decimal number. If the number is omitted, the precision is taken as zero. The precision specifies the the number of digits to appear after the decimal-point for “a”, “A”, “e”, “E”, “f”, and “F” conversions, the maximum number of significant digits for “g” and “G” conversions, and the maximum number of characters for the “s” conversion.

  • The conversion-specifier character, which must match the corresponding format item. The conversion character is one of the following:

    • A “d”, which specifies the conversion of an integer (INT or LINT) or word (WORD, LWORD, or WORD8) item to its decimal representation.

    • An “o”, which specifies the conversion of an integer (INT or LINT) or word (WORD, LWORD, or WORD8) item to its octal representation. If the “#” flag was specifies, then a leading "0" is prepended to the result.

    • An “x” or “X”, which specifies the conversion of an integer (INT or LINT) or word (WORD, LWORD, or WORD8) item to its hexadecimal representation. The digits are lower-case for “x” and upper-case for “X”. If the “#” flag was specifies, then a leading “0x” (or “0X”) is prepended to the result.

    • An “e” or “E”, which specifies the conversion of a real (REAL or LREAL) item to the format s d . ddd e s dd, where there is one digit before the decimal-point character and the number of digits after the decimal-point is equal to the precision. (The “`e” is replaced by “E`” for the “E” conversion specifier.) If the precision is missing, it defaults to six and if the precision is zero, no decimal-point character appears. The signs (s) of the number and exponent are displayed as specified by the flags.

    • A “f” or “F”, which specifies the conversion of a real (REAL or LREAL) item to the format s ddd . ddd, where the number of digits after the decimal-point is equal to the precision specification (or six if not specified).

    • A “g” or “G”, which specifies the conversion of a real (REAL or LREAL) item to either the format specified by “e” or “f” (or “E” or “F” in the case of “G”).

    • A “b”, which specifies the conversion of a boolean (BOOL) item, which will be displayed as either “true” or "`false`."

    • A “c”, which specifies the identity conversion of a character (CHAR) item.

    • A “s”, which specifies the identity conversion of a string (STR) or atom (ATOM) item.